How Does a Manufacturing Execution System Work?

An MES helps guide production operators step by step, through all the tasks required to transform raw materials into finished goods. It does this using digital work instructions, production routings and connecting to production machinery to build a traceable record of the manufacture of products within a factory.

In this article, I will take you, step by step through each of the stages required to set up and implement an MES in your manufacturing organisation.


We are currently experiencing the 4th Industrial Revolution. Machines and manual operations are being connected, bringing the benefits of automation to entire production processes and factories.

Industry 4.0 Overview

An overview of the 4 Industrial Revolutions (Source: Wikipedia)

A MES is one way to implement Industry 4.0 into a business. It helps manufacturing companies to remain competitive and relevant in the future. Business leaders recognise that manufacturers can’t compete with low-cost manufacturing, so they must develop new and innovative manufacturing techniques.

What Are The Benefits of a Manufacturing Execution System?

Research by PwC suggests that companies who embrace MES will have an advantage over their competitors.

Their report talks about:

– 30% increases in productivity through increased machine uptime and usage.

– Reduced time to market for new products.

– Mass Customisation – Competitive advantage through meeting customer demand with ‘make to order’ products.

Companies who have implemented MES, have reported ROI from cost savings (better use of labour and machinery) by 3%. Also, additional revenue (new digital products and data analytics services) by 3%.

Are you ready for a Manufacturing Execution System?

Once a company is convinced of the benefits of implementing an MES within their company, the next stage is to assess the companies Digital Readiness Level (DRL). This will help you to understand what will be required to create a connected factory.

Our assessment of the key stages and requirements for implementing a Manufacturing Execution System are:

– Big data from machines, manual processes and PLCs needs to be acquired and networked across the factory.

– Big data needs to be analysed and converted into smart business data.

– Machines should then be able to make the business decisions currently being made by people.

“In the future, your IT infrastructure may be more valuable than your production assets”.

Production process

The major benefit will be the cost savings from better use of labour and machinery. There can also be additional revenue from new digital products and data analytics services.

MES Step 1 – Creating a Secure Networked Factory

Benefits of a Manufacturing Execution System are achieved when computers can collate production data and make production decisions that are currently made manually. The first step in implementing this is connecting each production operation and machine with a secure network connection.

Secure Local Networks

The majority of installations we have been involved in have had secure local networks for production lines. They are connected to the internet or corporate network, through a gateway computer with TLS/SSL Encryption. The connections between production devices, gateways and the processing and analytics services in the cloud or on corporate networks, must have Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA).

MES Systems Network Overview

By following the key rules of CIA, a system will have:

  • Confidentiality – the ability to hide information to those who are not authorised to view it. Cryptographic encryption must be used to ensure confidentiality.
  • Integrity – this ensures that the data received is an accurate representation of the data transmitted from the source. Devices should use cryptographic hashing to ensure data is not corrupted.
  • Availability – ensures that the data is available to be accessed by the authorised viewer at any time. Devices must use cryptographic certificates to prove who they are.

Benefits of a CIA System

Firstly, the reliability of the production line is not reliant on the internet or corporate network connection. Secondly, it also has security benefits. Each machine network connection requires lower security standards, as they are not directly connected to the internet.

Custom machinery may be using industrial protocols like Modbus or OPC to connect to the Gateway. This ensures the Gateway to Cloud/Corporate Network is the main focus of secure local networks.

When configuring a network like this, the Gateway Hub computer will need 2 network ports. One for the local network using a fixed IP address and a second for connection to the internet or corporate network, using a TLS/SSL Encrypted connection.

The local network should then be connected with fixed IP addresses to all devices and machines in the production line. An example is shown below:

Machine NameDevice TypeLocal IP Address
Gateway HubWindows PC192.168.0.90
CNC Machining Station PLC >Windows PC HMI192.168.0.95
Sub Assembly StationWindows PC192.168.0.100
Sub Assembly InspectionSmart Camera192.168.0.105
Assembly StationWindows PC192.168.0.110
Functional Test Station PLC >Windows PC HMI192.168.0.115

Using this network configuration, the Gateway PC will manage to communicate with the wider factory network. For example, to acquire production order data. The local network will be used to guide and manage the production process.

In addition, a local production database can be installed on the Gateway PC to store local production data. The Gateway PC polls each production device to check their status and ensure they’re capable of performing production operations.

Distributed Devices

Local networks are not an option when production equipment is located at remote locations. In this case, the only option is to directly connect machines and devices straight to the internet. This requires more stringent security procedures on the machine connection, to reduce the risk of attack onto production equipment.

MES Systems Distributed Devices

Under those circumstances, an encrypted connection from the device to the hub is required. This is because the distributed devices are susceptible to attack from outside the organisation.

Building a secure, reliable network is a key foundation of all Manufacturing Execution System solutions and should not be overlooked.

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MES Step 2 – Communicating with Devices

Once a secure network is in place enabling a connection between production devices, a system must be created that will allow production machines to communicate with each other.

There are two main reasons for enabling production devices to communicate:

Monitor Machinery Status

Acquiring and storing machinery status, health and production data enables you to perform machine data analysis to predict its performance. Doing this also helps you decide when and how the machine should be used and ultimately, improve its production efficiency and machine utilisation.Machine Utilisation Chart

Control the Production Process

Sending commands to the production equipment to control what production processes to perform, reduces manual interaction and decision making within the production process. This makes the production process more efficient and more consistent.

By taking out the manual decision making of which program a machine should run and by having a software application make that decision, raises several keys benefits:

  • The risk of making production mistakes are greatly reduced.  This is because the correct machine program and setting can be configured correctly from the product’s routing and Bill of Materials (BOM), as opposed to selected manually from a work instruction.
  • A greater variety of different products can be routed through the same production line, with extremely small batch sizes. As a software application selects the new machine configurations for each new product, change-over times can be drastically reduced between different parts.

MES Systems product routing

An Example of an MES where a Software Layer will perform Automated Product Routing

  • The result of each production operation is recorded. Consequently, the production managers can instantly see the current production status of products moving along the production line. Product certifications can be automatically created and submitted directly to customers.

Connecting Devices

There are several types of manufacturing processes to connect to. Let’s simplify them down by categorising them into manual and automated processes. Manual processes are primarily controlled by a human operator, whereas automated processes are primarily controlled by an automation device, for example, a PLC or robot.

Each process must acquire data from the production process, then broadcast its data out using a standardised data format. This will be a data formatting schema that can be used for every manual process, machine or device. It contains the structure that allows software applications to understand the type of device sending the production data, as well as the production data characteristics contained.

Connecting Manual Process

Any manual or semi-automated process means we need to add sensors and a User Interface (UI). This gives the manual operator instruction of the manual process to be performed, as well as feedback on the results of the manufacturing process. The process HMI and process sensors must then receive production information and send production data out, that the networked production line can understand and process.

DAQ Device

A Wireless Data Acquisition (DAQ Device)

To implement a system like this requires either intelligent Industrial Internet of Things enabled sensors, or instead, regular sensors connected through a device that can process incoming commands and then broadcast that sensor data out using a standardised data format.

Connecting Automated Machinery

If a process is automated a device will be controlling it, such as a PLC,Robot controller or Smart Tools. To connect these types of devices together an industrial protocol is used. The right type of protocol often depends on whether it can be supported by the PLC or robotic device that controls the process.

There are numerous established industrial protocols existing today, including:

Each of these industrial protocols can communicate with computers using an Ethernet network connection. A key requirement for the system is that there is a software layer that sits between the devices that use the machine-specific protocol for each device. This software layer can then, in a generic format, broadcast the current machine status, as well as receiving and sending commands to the machine, using a protocol that it understands.

MES System overview

An Overview of an MES System, where manufacturing devices communicate through a Software Communications Layer.

As an example of this, we have developed our Manufacturing Execution System, Tascus, to have a device communication software layer that can communicate with any industrial protocol. It acts as a software layer to send and receive information to each manufacturing process. The Tascus software layer then stores its production data in a SQL Database for analysis and production tracking.

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MES Step 3 – Connecting Manufacturing Processes

Connecting manufacturing processes is the first step in creating a paperless factory. This can deliver large increases in production efficiency and reduce the lead time of manufacturing products.

Many manufacturing systems control product routings manually. A bill of materials and job routing will be developed for a product, which will be printed out and carried along with a batch of the product through a factory with various manufacturing operations. This requires planners, supervisors and production operators to review each product routing and decide what should happen to the product batch next.

By connecting manufacturing processes together a Manufacturing Execution System can perform all the product routing. It can consequently, communicate directly with production machinery to select the correct production process for each product batch.

Optimising Product Routing

When all production equipment is connected to the production system, the software application controlling the process has a large amount of data about all the machinery and production equipment throughout the entire production process. In addition, a software application can perform more analytics and quality checking on products as they progress through the factory. As a result, product routings can be changed based on feedback from production data or on data from production machinery, further down the production line.

The production software optimises the production process by adding logic to change routing:

  • Bottlenecks can be avoided by balancing product routing against current process times.
  • When sales order volume changes, the product can be rerouted automatically through the fastest path to delivery.
  • New products can be routed quicker, with less manual decision making on the shop floor.

MES System product routing

An example software HMI layout of a production facility with product routings highlighted.

Automatic Delivery of Job Packs

The software controlling the production systems knows all the production information about the part coming in to be manufactured. It can, therefore, be connected to CAD and ERP systems, to deliver the full job pack with manufacturing information for the production operator.

This ensures that the correct information is delivered for each product when it is required. It also makes the production of small batches of the product easier.

Guided Assembly

Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) can be used to display production work instructions, guiding the operator through any manual production process. It displays production feedback from machinery that is needed for any decision making that the operator needs to take.

Production Line HMI

A Production Line HMI

When guided assembly stations are combined with sensors, barcode scanners and RFID tag readers, a trackable and traceable production line can be built. As the product moves along the production line, the software system records each manufacturing operation that has been completed. It can also record component details that have been used in the product.

All of the information can be stored in a production database. This allows product reports to be generated, detailing all manufacturing operations performed and all components used during manufacture.

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MES Step 4 – Improving Your Business with Production Data Analytics

Once manufacturing operations are connected to IT systems, large amounts of production data can be gathered. However, it then needs to be converted from large volumes of unsorted production data, into data that is relevant to business processes. By performing automated analysis on the raw production data, the data can then be used to make business decisions about which manufacturing processes need further optimisation.

By using this data as an additional tool to help make the right business decisions, companies will have the advantage of continually improving their manufacturing operations. Businesses are using this information to:

  • Increase manufacturing efficiency.
  • Improve product quality.
  • Expand their product.

Production Planning

When the production system is storing data at each manufacturing operation, product routings and timing can be optimised.

The timing and product processing data that is stored can help identify underperforming machines, areas and operators.

MES System Production Data Report

A Production Data Report with Operation Times


On each production machine, data can be acquired from its sensors. However, this needs to be processed in a way that’s relevant to machine expected life and service intervals.

Typical routine maintenance schedules will identify a fixed timescale for replacing machine components. However, this may be costly if the time schedule is either underestimated or overestimated.

During a recent project, we implemented a component life tracker that uses system pressure transducers. It calculates the expected life of system components, based on the time spent at different pressure levels. When the machine sits idle or performs low impact manufacturing process, the deterioration of system components is lower than when the machine is performing near its maximum operating conditions.

By processing information taken from sensors and then using it to predict machine component life, decisions about when to replace machine components can be optimised. This gets the maximum life from components and prevents unexpected machine failure.

New Digital Products

Imagine a company that creates highly complex control systems for automotive vehicles. Each complex component that is produced must then be assembled into a larger even more complex vehicle. The interface between the two is critical for the correct operation of the vehicle so that when the customer drives it away, every aspect of the control of the vehicle feels right.

A client of Metis Automation does exactly this and, as a result, has been able to offer an additional product to each of their customers – a digital file copied over with every product shipped. This file contains the control configuration settings formatted in a way that the customer’s IT system can import the file directly to the vehicle that the component has been fitted to.

As the vehicle passes along the production line, it moves through an RFID scanning gate which detects all the information stored in components fitted to the vehicle. The IT system then looks up the configuration and production data for those components.

This replaces an extremely manual system where each vehicle would be manually tuned at the end of the production line, to obtain the optimum control configuration by trial and error.

Benefits of an Automated System

There are two main benefits to this new automated system.  Firstly, it’s much more efficient as it removes lengthy manual tuning operations. Secondly, it’s much more effective and repeatable, as it takes out the subjectivity associated with manual tuning operations.

To our customers, the benefits are:

  • Increased revenue from add on products.
  • Differentiation from competitors who are not offering this service.

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How to implement a Manufacturing Execution System in your business

In this guide, I’ve ultimately outlined the key areas to be implemented when creating a Connected Factory with an MES System. We have applied our experience from automating processes and creating connected factories.